Tartar is one of the most common problems in dentistry. As dentists say, every person has encountered it at least once in a lifetime. The first mineralization (hardening) occurs after 14-16 hours from plaque accumulation. Completely the stone is formed within 3-7 months. What is and how dangerous it can be for teeth, Yuliana R., a dentist, orthopedist, and implant surgeon, told Okemen.xyz.
What is the essence of education?
“Tooth tartar is formed in everyone – for someone to a greater extent and others to a lesser extent. This is a natural process associated with the fact that salivary ducts exit at several points in the human oral cavity, ”explains Yuliana.
The first is the submandibular and sublingual, which are located under the tongue, where the central incisors of the lower jaw are located. Two more – parotid, located on the sides of the upper jaw.
Ordinary tartar (supragingival deposits), which we can see above the gum, is formed by saliva on plaque accumulating on the teeth. After all, along with saliva, trace elements are produced, for example, the same calcium. It provokes the mineralization of plaque. The stone is compacted. This is a normal process, and the main thing is not to forget to clean it on time.
The second type of stone is subgingival deposits. Such a stone is worse than a supragingival one, Yuliana notes. “This is because we do not see it, but it provokes inflammation of the gums. Such a stone usually forms either if a person has accumulated a lot of ordinary stone and it spreads deeper or if a person has a lot of old fillings and crowns with overhanging edges, which provoke the accumulation of plaque not above the gum, but deeper, ”explains the dentist.
How to recognize it?
Yuliana notes that it is usually easy to recognize tartar, even in oneself. It is enough to tilt your head down, open your mouth wide and look into the mirror. The stone feels rough, and the consistency is very dense. You can feel it with your tongue.
A subgingival calculus is worse than a supragingival calculus, as more manipulations are required to remove it. Such stones are denser, and even ultrasound does not take them. To remove them, special devices are required – they also work according to the ultrasonic principle, but the oscillation frequency is different. In addition, manual cleaning with special tools is also required. After cleaning, doctors polish the surfaces and treat them with antiseptics so that plaque does not form for some time.
What is dangerous?
The stone is not just a cosmetic defect. Subgingival calculus provokes the destruction of the periodontal ligament surrounding the tooth. “Due to this, a gap appears between the gum and the tooth, the so-called periodontal pocket, where food is constantly clogged. It is worth remembering that this periodontal ligament is not restored. Therefore, a person remains with such pockets forever and must constantly use an irrigator, ”warns Yuliana.
Supragingival plaque, says the dentist, carries with it three dangers:
- Since such a stone is uneven and rough, it provokes an even greater plaque accumulation on its surface and around it. Therefore, after removing such a deposit on the jaw, doctors often find carious cavities under it.
- Such a stone leads to the formation of subgingival, which provokes periodontitis (inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tooth).
- Tartar provokes inflammation in the gum area, the integrity of the periodontal ligament is also violated, and after plaque removal, a person often forms gaps between the teeth previously occupied by a stone in such a situation. If the periodontal ligament is not closed, such triangles between the teeth will close on their own in a couple of days. But if the ligament is destroyed, it will remain forever; against this background, the roots are exposed.
What factors provoke the development of a stone?
- Crowding of teeth. If they are uneven, this area is more difficult to process, and there will be more stones here. Monitoring such areas and using toothbrushes, threads, and other means is imperative. You should also visit a specialist for professional hygiene at least once a year.
- Availability of different designs. We are talking, for example, about braces. Due to the presence of a large number of elements, they lead to additional accumulation of plaque.
- Tongue piercing. If the tongue is pierced, part of the rod with the ball enters the sublingual region. Plaque is formed directly on the ball itself. Behind him, too, need regular care – periodically, it must be removed and cleaned. But not everyone does this.
Among the general criteria affecting the development of the stone the following factors:
- violation of mineral metabolism in the body when a lot of calcium is washed out;
- hormonal disorders, such as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal problems.
How to cope?
First of all, emphasizing Yuliana, it is necessary to remove provoking factors if possible. “If, for example, it is crowding of teeth, you need to follow it hygienically correctly, treat it with an orthodontist,” Yuliana advises.
If we are talking about constructing an orthopedist, then proper hygienic care is enough.
If the problem lies in the crowns or fillings, you need to change the design or adjust it. “To understand that there is a problem is simple. It is enough to hold the floss between the teeth. If it breaks or fluffs up, there is an area with a defect. Accordingly, plaque and subgingival deposits will accumulate here, ”says the specialist.
In this case, you must use an irrigator; without it, this area cannot be processed in any way – brushes and brushes will not enter this area.
Of course, regular professional hygiene is required. After all, it is impossible to remove the stone on your own, Yuliana notes.